It includes a commitment to meet European legal air quality limits across Scotland by 2020.
Ministers also pledged to adopt World Health Organisation guidelines on particulate matter pollution.
Environmental campaigners said Scotland was setting tougher targets but did not have a plan to deliver them.
Aileen McLeod, the Scottish government’s environment minister, said the Cleaner Air for Scotland document sets out actions across government portfolios “that will further reduce air pollution, with a particular emphasis on protecting human health and reducing health inequalities”.
Ms McLeod said: “I want us to demonstrate our level of ambition but at the same time learn from good practice elsewhere.
“We must also highlight the opportunities to generate efficiencies and cost savings by linking air quality to other areas, such as climate change adaptation and mitigation, transport and planning.”
Friends of the Earth Scotland campaigner Emilia Hanna said it lacked detail on practical measures to implement changes.
“In particular, there are not enough measures in the strategy to get the most polluting traffic off our roads,” she said.
“Air pollution has been linked with heart attacks, strokes, asthma attacks, and cancer, and causes thousands of early deaths each year in Scotland.”
She welcomed indications that low emission zones (LEZ), developed with local authorities, could be used to create minimum emission standards for cars in certain areas.
Green MSP Alison Johnstone said: “Communities affected by dangerous levels of pollution have been waiting too long for practical action and serious investment.
“Today’s publication, focusing on monitoring and awareness campaigns, while glossing over massive roadbuilding budgets, is like Groundhog Day.”