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Screen Shot 2016-08-24 at 08.53.46Iraqi children pay high health cost of war-induced air pollution, study finds

Researchers identify exposure to toxic materials from explosion of munitions and burning of military waste by US army as cause of birth defects and cancers

forest-fire-california-browserHealth Risks from Wildfires in U.S. West to Increase Under Climate Change 

A surge in major wildfire events in the U.S. West as a consequence of climate change will expose tens of millions of Americans to high levels of air pollution in the coming decades, according to a new Yale-led study conducted with collaborators from Harvard.

Beijing Struck By SandstormCommonly Uses Cheap Cloth Mask Not Very Effective Against Air Pollution

A new study reveals that the cheap cloth masks, most commonly used in highly polluted areas in Asia and Southeast Asia, could not protect people from the harmful effects of air pollution.

 

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South Asia’s pollution spreads to Tibet 

New research shows how haze from Nepal and India travels over the Himalayas, causing pollution spikes on northern slopes of Everest and central Tibet.

In the past, the remoteness and high elevation of the Himalayas and Tibetan plateau was believed to protect the vast expanse of land from the chronic pollution that haunts the densely populated regions of China and South Asia. It was thought that the world’s highest mountain range would act as a barrier to stop pollution from reaching the higher glaciated peaks.

But new research from scientists at the Chinese Academy of Sciences show pollution is spreading over the world’s highest mountain range and across central Tibet. The team recorded major spikes in pollution this April on the northern slopes of Everest, and traced the source back to Nepal and northern India.

Brown clouds blight South Asia

Every year, particularly during the dry winter season from October until May, the heavily populated Indo-Gangetic Plain in South Asia is plagued by severe air pollution. In recent years, people in India and Nepal, in particular, have suffered from periods of suffocating air pollution, known scientifically as Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABCs).

In 2015 India’s air pollution levels overtook China’s. According to an analysis by Greenpeace of NASA satellite data, the average particulate matter exposure in India exceeded that of China’s, and more importantly China’s exposure fell 15 per cent between 2014 and 2015, while India’s was increasing by 2 per cent per year.

Pollution is worse in the winter because there is no rain to wash pollutants from the air. In Kathmandu, for example, days with clear views of the Himalayas become very rare due to the heavy brown clouds shrouding the valley. Emissions from burning fossil fuels and biomass for cooking and heating build up during the dry season when brown clouds extend from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayan ridge.

The soot, sulphates and other harmful aerosols in Atmospheric Brown Clouds pose a major threat to the water and food security of Asia, according to a 2008 study by UNEP. The soot settles on the glaciers, darkening the snow and increasing absorption of energy. This speeds up the melting of glaciers and snow pack in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas – which provide water for million of people living downstream.

Pollutants also absorb the sun and heat the atmosphere and so are thought to be as “important as greenhouse gas warming in accounting for the anomalously large warming trend observed in the elevated regions,” states the report.

With the westerlies blowing across the Indo Gangetic plain, pollutants spread across Nepal and climb up valleys and slopes of the Himalayan ranges.

Ice-core samples taken from both the southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas have also revealed rising soot concentrations during times of rapid industrialization in recent decades, indicating pollution could travel over the high mountain range.

Latest evidence

In recent years Chinese scientists have found more definitive evidence that the Himalayas do not block the passage of pollution into the central region of the Tibetan plateau. Thanks to observations at various observatory stations on the northern slopes of the Himalayas since 2009, they have found a similar concentration and type of pollutants on both the south and north sides of Mount Everest.

Professor Kang Shichang, director of the State Key Laboratory of Cryosphere Science at CAS, has been monitoring the atmosphere of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for over 15 years.

In April this year, Kang observed a sudden peaking of black carbon at the observation site on the Qomolangma (Mount Everest) Station, 4,276 metres above sea level on the northern foothills of Mount Everest.

Typically the Everest station records black carbon concentrations of about 0.3 microgrammes per cubic metre, but on April 9-18, levels spiked to 1.2-2.4 microgrammes per cubic metre. While severe for this unpopulated area, this level of black carbon is still relatively low for China; in the country’s urban areas, black carbon concentrations tend to range between 6-11 microgrammes per cubic metre, according to a 2012 report by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

The extremely high levels of black carbon in atmosphere during this period is far beyond the background figure on Everest and thus could be listed as a “pollution event,” said Kang.

Using satellite images and computer simulations of the air circulation system based on meteorological data, Kang and his research team concluded that 97 per cent of the air clusters passing through the station during that period came from northern India and the neighbouring area in Nepal. “The transport of the air masses passed most parts of Nepal before finally climbing over the Himalayas to reach the northern slopes of Mount Everest,” states the analysis from Kang’s team.

The team traced the pollution to Nepal as the major source, followed by northern India using images from the MODIS instrument on NASA’s Aqua satellite. “An apparent rise of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), particularly fine aerosol particles, at the Everest station occurred, which indicated the increasing of fine particles from burned biomass [such as from cooking stoves fed by wood or crops, or from forest fires],” the report stated.

During April, when the spike in pollution on Everest was recorded, Nepal experienced a region-wide heavy haze from forest fires after prolonged drought. Both NASA satellites and local anecdotal evidence show widespread forest fires and the burning of agricultural crops from 7 April through the following week in Nepal.

Widespread effect

Transboundary air pollution does not only affect the area around Everest. In March 2009, the Namco station in central Tibet, around 800 kilometres to the northeast of the Everest station, recorded a sudden rise of AOD in March 2009 to 0.42 (AOD varied between 0.428 and 0.550 for China’s most polluted urban region in the neighbourhood area of Beijing during 2000-2013). This was a huge spike compared to the low base level of 0.029 AOD.

The results and analysis of Kang’s team were published in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics in mid-2015. The research detailed “how polluted air masses from atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days,” driven by a combination of long distance and local meteorological processes.

Every year before in the months before the monsoon, from March until May, there is a high chance of severe transboundary air pollution, Kang said, based on almost a decade of observations.

This story was published with permission from The Third Pole. Read the full story.

 

Source: South Asia’s pollution spreads to Tibet | News | Eco-Business | Asia Pacific

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Polluted air affects 92% of global population, says WHO 

Nine out of 10 people on the planet breathe polluted air, even outdoors, the World Health Organisation said.

Some 92% of the population live in places where air pollution exceeds WHO limits, which can contribute to lung cancer, heart disease, and strokes.

The south-east Asia and western Pacific regions account for nearly two out of every three such deaths, it said, with poorer countries “getting worse”.

Around three million deaths every year are linked to outdoor air pollution.

When “indoor” air pollution – which includes pollutants like wood smoke and cooking fires – is added, air pollution is linked to one in every nine deaths worldwide, the WHO said.

The air quality model used in the data measures the smallest particles, less than 2.5 micrometres across – which can enter the bloodstream and reach the brain.

Country-by-country data showed that Turkmenistan has the highest death rate connected to outdoor air pollution.

Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Egypt rounded out the top five.

“Rich countries are getting much better in improving the quality of the air,” Dr Carlos Dora from the WHO told the Associated Press.

“Poorer countries are getting worse. That is the overall trend.”

However, he said, North America is doing better than Europe, mostly because Europe depends more on diesel fuel and farming practices that create ammonia and methane.

China, the country with the sixth-highest death rate linked to air pollution, is relatively wealthy, but is plagued by smog in its cities and polluted air from industrial sources.

The WHO pointed to sustainable transport, waste management, and renewable energies as possible ways to reduce air pollution.

It said its latest data represented the most detailed study it has ever released. The analysis combined satellite measurements and more than 3,000 monitoring stations on the ground with air transport models.

The report is based on 2012 figures, which are the most recent available.

Source: Polluted air affects 92% of global population, says WHO – BBC News

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China tops WHO list for deadly outdoor air pollution

More than 1 million people died from dirty air in one year, according to World Health Organisation

China is the world’s deadliest country for outdoor air pollution, according to analysis by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

The UN agency has previously warned that tiny particulates from cars, power plants and other sources are killing 3 million people worldwide each year.

For the first time the WHO has broken down that figure to a country-by-country level. It reveals that of the worst three nations, more than 1 million people died from dirty air in China in 2012, at least 600,000 in India and more than 140,000 in Russia.

At 25th out of 184 countries with data, the UK ranks worse than France, with 16,355 deaths in 2012 versus 10,954, but not as poorly as Germany at 26,160, which has more industry and 16 million more people. Australia had 94 deaths and 38,043 died in the US that year from particulate pollution.

Maria Neria, director of the WHO’s public health and the environment department, told the Guardian: “Countries are confronted with the reality of better data. Now we have the figures of how many citizens are dying from air pollution. What we are learning is, this is very bad. Now there are no excuses for not taking action.”

Gavin Shaddick, who led the international team that put together the data, said: “Globally, air pollution presents a major risk to public health and a substantial number of lives could be saved if levels of air pollution were reduced.”

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Sixteen scientists from eight international institutions worked with WHO on the analysis, which gathered data from 3,000 locations, using pollution monitors on the ground, modelling and satellite readings.

They looked at exposure to tiny particulates 2.5 microns in size, known as PM2.5s, which penetrate the lungs and are the air pollutant most strongly associated with an increased risk of death. “The real driver of ill health is ultra-fine particles, 2.5s – they have the ability to permeate the membrane of the lungs and enter our blood system,” said Shaddick, who is based at the University of Bath. “Increasingly there is an understanding that there are not just respiratory diseases but cardiovascular ones associated with PM2.5s.”

In the UK more than 90% of the population lives in areas with levels of PM2.5s above the WHO’s air-quality limits of 10 micrograms per cubic metre for the annual mean. The government is in the high court on 18 and 19 October facing a legal challenge by environmental law group ClientEarth, which says ministers’ clean-up plans for another pollutant – nitrogen dioxide – are inadequate.

Globally, 92% of the population breathes air that breaches WHO limits but the world map of deaths caused by PM2.5s changes when looked at per capita. When ranked by the number of deaths for every 100,000 people, Ukraine jumps to the top of the list at 120.

It is followed by eastern European and former Soviet states, and Russia itself, probably due to a legacy of heavy industry in the region. China drops down to 10th, at 76 per 100,000, and India falls to 27th, with 49 per 100,000.

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Most of the air pollution comes from cars, coal-fired plants and waste burning but not all of it is created by humans. Dust storms in places close to deserts also contribute to dirty air, explaining partly why Iran is at 16th highest for total deaths, at 26,000 a year.

Most of the total deaths worldwide – two out of three – occur in south-east Asia and the western Pacific, which includes China, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, South Korea and small Pacific island states.

Shaddick said: “We might think of [pollution in] Beijing as being very high, but when you fill in the gaps between the big [Chinese] cities, [air pollution in] regions [is] remarkably high compared to the WHO limits [10 grams per cubic metre for the annual mean], up in the 50s and 60s. That’s something we in the west can’t even comprehend. That was probably a bit of a shock [to me].”

The Pacific states of Brunei Darussalam, Fiji and Vanuatu have the lowest number of deaths from air pollution, the WHO found.

Anne Hidalgo, mayor of Paris and chair-elect of a network of cities combating climate change, said: “Fighting pollution is one of my top priorities as mayor of Paris. It is a vital public health issue and all mayors should take on their responsibility to deliver bold actions.”

The city of Paris voted on Monday to ban cars along a stretch of the river Seine to cut pollution, defeating a minority rightwing opposition.

Hidalgo added: “I have said it before and am saying it again: we cannot negotiate with Parisians’ health.”

Neira said Canada and Scandinavian countries deserved praise for curbing air pollution and singled out France too. “France is taking a lot of action, Paris is taking aggressive measures: aggressive in the good sense. [It] maybe unpopular because it’s for the health of people but they are putting some restrictions on individuals. We all need to understand this is a matter of public health,” she said.

Source: China tops WHO list for deadly outdoor air pollution | Environment | The Guardian

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40% increase of childhood cancer caused by air pollution 

Childhood cancer is very rare — but not as rare as it used to be.

New figures show rates have increased by 40% over the last 16 years in Britain.

It’s a worrying trend, not least because it’s unclear why it’s happening.

However, it’s thought a significant proportion of the extra cases may be linked to changes in lifestyle and environment, for both children and parents.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), part of the World Health Organisation, has classified outdoor air pollution as a cancer-causing agent, saying it causes lung cancer and is linked to bladder cancer.

“The air we breathe is filled with cancer-causing substances,” says Dr Kurt Straif of the IARC.

“Outdoor air pollution is not only a major environmental risk to health in general, it is the most important environmental cancer killer, due to the large number of people exposed.”

The main artificial sources of outdoor air pollution are transportation, stationary power generation, industrial and agricultural emissions, and residential heating and cooking, notes the IARC.

Professor Denis Henshaw, a specialist in children’s cancer believes around 30% of childhood cancer in urban areas is linked with air pollution.

In 2014, the Childhood Leukaemia International Consortium (CLIC) found that when parents are exposed to pesticides during pregnancy or conception, there was an increased risk of leukaemia for their child.

This risk applies to both the mother and the father, whose sperm may be affected.

Radiation is known to increase cancer risk in children and adults, and children who have radiotherapy for cancer have a slightly increased risk of developing another cancer later.

Henshaw says data suggests 5% of childhood leukaemia is linked to radon, a radioactive gas found naturally in the ground.

It diffuses into open air and isn’t a health hazard outside, but a house can trap radon gas.

However, researchers say studies show there may only be a weak link between indoor levels of radon gas and the risk of childhood leukaemia.

The IARC classes electromagnetic fields (EMF), of the type associated with our electricity supply, as ‘possibly carcinogenic’ to humans, based on studies that reported an approximate doubling of leukaemia risk for children exposed at average levels above 0.3 – 0.4 microtesla.

However, no conclusive link has been found between EMF and cancer.

Studies suggest carcinogens from a mother’s diet can cross the placenta into an unborn baby’s bloodstream, and Henshaw, says some of the carcinogens could come from processed meats and burned barbecue meats eaten by pregnant women.

Eating a healthy diet full of fruit and vegetables is important for all the family, including pregnant women and children, says Henshaw.

In addition, an Australian study found mothers who took folate and iron supplements during pregnancy had more than a 60% reduced risk of their children developing leukaemia.

Sending children to day care in infancy may have a protective effect against leukaemia, too.

“The theory is that children are exposed to common infections from mixing with other children, and this strengthens their immune system,” explains Henshaw.

Source: 40% increase of childhood cancer caused by air pollution | Irish Examiner

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Air Pollution and Your Skin 

Research shows air pollution damages and prematurely ages skin

Lung and heart diseases have long been linked to air pollution, but the effects on skin are now beginning to be understood.

Air pollution, especially in large and heavily polluted cities, is causing skin damage, according to emerging research.

In urban areas most air pollution comes from vehicle exhaust. Among the pollutants in this exhaust are tiny particles called PMs, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and chemicals like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

From eczema and hives to accelerating wrinkles and age spots, air pollution is being linked to damage to the body’s largest organ. However, scientists also say that some common skin routines may also be making the problem worse.

“With traffic pollution emerging as the single most toxic substance for skin, the dream of perfect skin is over for those living and working in traffic-polluted areas unless they take steps to protect their skin right now,” Dr. Mervyn Patterson, a cosmetic doctor at Woodford Medical clinics in the UK, said in an interview with The Guardian.

Jean Krutmann, MD, is the director at the Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine in Germany. He and colleagues completed a study of over 1,800 people in Germany and China that showed when air pollution increased so did age spots on the patients’ cheeks.

“It is not a problem that is limited to China or India–we have it in Paris, in London, wherever you have larger urban agglomerations you have it,” Dr. Krutman said in a press release. “In Europe everywhere is so densely populated and the particles are being distributed by the wind, so it is very difficult to escape from the problem.”

The study was reported in May in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

Pollutants are able to pass through the skin, and once in the body cause inflammation. These pollutants can increase melanocytes (the cells that create pigment in the skin), make blood vessels grow larger and trigger the enzymes that reabsorb damaged collagen. Collagen is one of the supporting structures of the skin. The enzymes can remove so much that skin begins to sag and wrinkle.

Researchers are now looking for ways to protect the skin from air pollution. Some have added vitamin B3 to skin care products as it can help heal damaged skin. Others are looking at different molecules or chemicals that may protect the skin from damage in the first place.

Researchers also noted that some of the things people do in their quest for smoother skin add to air pollution’s effects, like retinoids, glycolic acid and skin scrubs.

“You can also put on a very nice physical shield in the form of good quality mineral makeup. That produces an effect like a protective mesh and probably has some trapping effect, protecting against the initial penetration of particles,” Dr. Patterson said. “But you also need always to try to remove that shield in the evening, washing the slate clean every night.”

Source: Air Pollution and Your Skin | dailyRx News

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Cardiff holds first ‘car-free day’ to cut air pollution 

Concerns over air pollution in the city centre means Cardiff will hold its first car-free day on Thursday.

But only Park Place in Cathays will be closed to all traffic until 00:00 BST on Friday.

It will become a street market and host a transport exhibition giving information on sustainable travel.

While all commuters will be encouraged to leave their cars at home in a move designed to combat air pollution, no other areas will be closed off.

Jane Lorimer, director of cycle charity Sustrans Cymru said it was a “positive first step”.

Councillors backed plans to ban cars in the city centre for one day each year, to cut air pollution, last October.

‘Grossly irresponsible’

But cabinet member Ramesh Patel said it would be “grossly irresponsible” to widen the area before the first plan had been reviewed.

He added: “With the new bus interchange developing, a cycling strategy being produced, planned investment in our railways and future plans for the metro, sustainable transport is a major priority for the council.

“Making walking, cycling and public transport more attractive and viable options for commuters and residents are integral to Cardiff’s continued development and achieving our aspiration to become Europe’s most liveable capital city.”

Car-free days already take place in Delhi, Paris and London.

It is claimed air pollution is linked to tens of thousands of deaths in the UK annually.

Source: Cardiff holds first ‘car-free day’ to cut air pollution – BBC News

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Indonesia dismisses study showing forest fire haze killed more than 100,000 people 

Authorities from Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore have rejected recent research on the number of early deaths caused by last year’s fires

Indonesian, Malaysian and Singaporean authorities have dismissed research that suggested smoky haze from catastrophic forest fires in Indonesia last year caused 100,000 deaths. Some even contend the haze caused no serious health problems, but experts say those assertions contradict well-established science.

Last year’s fires in Sumatra and the Indonesian part of Borneo were the worst since 1997, burning about 261,000 hectares of forests and peatland and sending haze across the region for weeks. Many were deliberately set by companies to clear land for palm oil and pulpwood plantations.

The study in the journal Environmental Research Letters by Harvard and Columbia researchers estimated the amount of health-threatening fine particles, often referred to as PM2.5, released by the fires that burned from July to October and tracked their spread across south-east Asia using satellite observations.

In Indonesia, a spokesman for the country’s disaster mitigation agency said the research “could be baseless or they have the wrong information”. Indonesia officially counted 24 deaths from the haze including people killed fighting the fires.

Singapore’s Ministry of Health said short-term exposure to haze will generally not cause serious health problems. The study was “not reflective of the actual situation”, it said, and the overall death rate hadn’t changed last year.

In Malaysia, health minister Subramaniam Sathasivam said officials are still studying the research, which is “computer-generated, not based on hard data”. “People have died but to what extent the haze contributed to it, it’s hard to say,” he said. “If an 80-year-old fellow with high blood pressure, diabetes, heart problem and exposure to haze died, what did he die of? This is a hell of a difficult question to answer.”

The dry season fires are an annual irritant in Indonesia’s relations with its neighbours Singapore and Malaysia and the finding of a huge public health burden has the potential to worsen those strains. The 2015 burning season, which was worsened by El Niño’s dry conditions, also tainted Indonesia’s reputation globally by releasing a vast amount of atmosphere-warming carbon.

The Indonesian government has stepped up efforts to prosecute companies and individuals who set fires and also strengthened its fire-fighting response. This year’s fires have affected a smaller area in large part due to unseasonal rains.

Jamal Hisham Hashim, research fellow with the International Institute for Global Health in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, said governments should not dismiss the study even if the estimated deaths are arguable.

He said decades of air pollution research that followed London’s killer smog in 1952 has established the relationship between fine particulate matter and premature deaths, particularly in people with existing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

“The pollution level that occurred during the haze is severe enough to cause premature deaths. That is indisputable,” he said. “The study is a wake-up call. We need to be shaken; we have become too complacent with the haze.”

Joel Schwartz, an author of the study who is regarded by his peers as one of the world’s top experts on the health effects of air pollution, said authorities in the affected countries have not offered any details of how they reached conclusions critical of the study.

During the haze, Malaysia suffered air pollution at 10 times the level that the World Health Organization says causes premature deaths, he said, while Singapore’s claim that short-term exposure does not have serious effects is factually incorrect.
The Singaporean statement that its death rate was unchanged from 2014 did not demonstrate anything, Schwartz said, due to a worldwide trend for declining mortality. The study’s premise is that deaths are higher than what they would be without the haze rather than a comparison to a particular year, he said.

Separately, Singapore’s health ministry did not respond to a question on why heart disease and pneumonia, both of which can be brought to fatal conclusion by fine particle exposure, had increased as a percentage of deaths in 2015.

Malaysia, meanwhile, does not measure PM2.5 in its air pollution index but has been planning to from next year.

Half a dozen scientists with expertise in air pollution who reviewed the study for the Associated Press said its methodology was sound and its conclusions reasonable. Some cautioned that the estimates of 91,600 deaths in Indonesia, another 6,500 in Malaysia and 2,200 in Singapore are invariably uncertain because aspects of the modelling rely on assumptions and the actual figures could be higher or lower.

The study considered only the health impact on adults and restricts itself to the effects of fine particles rather than all toxins that would be in the smoke.

Philip Hopke, director of the Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science at New York state’s Clarkson University, said air pollution studies have to overcome several challenges because “no one who gets sick or dies comes to the doctor or hospital with a clear label that says airborne particles or ozone did this.” Another problem is the studies typically assume that fine particles are the sole cause of illness or death but smoke from fires contains ozone and a variety of volatile compounds that would also affect health.

“A major event like occurred here is extremely likely to have caused adverse health outcomes in terms of both sickness and deaths,” he said.

Source: Indonesia dismisses study showing forest fire haze killed more than 100,000 people | Environment | The Guardian

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California restricts pollutants from cow flatulence to diesel emissions 

California on Monday moved to restrict air pollutants from sources as diverse as diesel trucks and cow flatulence, the latest of several efforts in the most populous U.S. state to reduce emissions leading to climate change.

Under a bill signed Monday by Democratic Governor Jerry Brown, the state will cut emissions of methane from dairy cows and other animals by 40 percent and black carbon from diesel trucks and other sources by 50 percent. The bill also mandates the state to reduce emissions of fluorinated gases, or hydrofluorocarbons used in refrigeration.

The measure comes on the heels of several climate-change bills signed in recent weeks by Brown, including one that by 2030 will mandate an overall reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to 40 percent below the level released in 1990.

“We’re protecting people’s lungs, their health by cutting out a poisonous chemical that comes out of diesel trucks,” Brown said at a signing ceremony in the Los Angeles suburb of Long Beach, where trucks at the nation’s largest port complex spew particulate matter, including black carbon, along clogged freeways, contributing to high rates of asthma and other conditions in some of the region’s poorest areas.

“It goes from some machine, into the air and into your lungs,” Brown said.

The pollutants targeted in the bill signed Monday differ from carbon dioxide and other pollutants associated with global warming in that they remain in the atmosphere a relatively short time. However, these emissions have heat-trapping effects, so reducing their presence can help fight climate change, Brown said.

In addition to black carbon, which comes from trucks as well as the burning of organic material and other sources, the bill also requires reductions in hydrofluorocarbons, used in refrigeration and to power aerosol products.

It would also require the state’s dairy industry, which produces 20 percent of the country’s milk, to find a way to reduce methane produced by cow flatulence and manure.

One technology for doing that is known as a methane digester, which turns the gas into usable fuel. Such equipment is expensive, however, which worries the state’s dairy farmers.

“This mandated 40 percent reduction in methane and 50 percent reduction in anthropogenic black carbon gas represents a direct assault on California’s dairy industry and will hurt manufacturing,” a small-business group, the National Federation of Independent Businesses, said in a news release.

But Brown said the mandates will lead the state to develop better technology and boost the economy.

Source: California restricts pollutants from cow flatulence to diesel emissions | Reuters

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